If you look at the development of medical technology and hospital policies for endless ranging from INA-DRG program, Case Mix, Hospital Management Information System, to medical imaging and medical engineering. The edges are on patient care and patient safety. The hospital is not sufficient reason to override the 2 elements because of efforts in this field like two sides of a coin are inseparable. One side is a social organization and one side is a business institution. But lately this function shifts more to right than to the left. This means that the social function of the RS has begun to shift to a less dominant.
The burden is now used as a reason why access to technology services in expensive hospital. To cover the operational costs are not uncommon management to charge it to the patient's hospital is not objective. Counting the tail will raise the cost of service is very expensive.
Macroeconomic indicators in question here is inflation, employment, economic growth, and the balance of trade (a proxy of the balance of payments), which is a key indicator. Macroeconomic variables are interrelated through the goods market, the money market, the labor market and the stock market that forms the internal balance (equilibrium macro) and external balance (balance of payments-BOP). In addition, other macroeconomic variables observed were of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar, interest rates, money supply, and investment. Macroeconomic stability can be seen from the effect of policy shocks in food prices or other macroeconomic variables of the key indicators of macroeconomic variables. If the shocks cause large fluctuations in macroeconomic variables, it can be said macroeconomic stability vulnerable to such shocks. Conversely, if the impact causing minor fluctuations, it can be said to be stable macroeconomic stability. The measures used in assessing the stability of the study is the impact of the shock / shock against: (1) differences in initial and final value of the endogenous variables, (2) the amount of variation seen from the amplitude fluctuations of endogenous variables, and (3) the length of time for the endogenous variable fluctuations reach the new equilibrium, and (4) the coefficient of variation. A shock could lead to a new equilibrium, the condition is rising, fixed, or a decrease of the equilibrium conditions at the beginning of the shock.
The policy of food prices is to maintain the stability of food prices that inflation can be controlled. Furthermore, the rate of inflation affects the interest rates on the money market. Then the interest rate affect investment in the goods market. Inflation also affects the demand for labor in the labor market tenga and so there was a relationship between macroeconomic variables, resulting in a balance. The relation between the variables that affect each other simultaneously, the relation of which is more appropriate if specified in the model VAR (Vector Autoregressive). The general form VAR model in accordance with the optimal order of Likelihood Ratio test results as k is:
Cointegration vector (ß ') shows a long-term relationship of the variables to be analyzed. Cointegration vectors can be shown in the form of a matrix equation cointegration based on the number of long-term, resulting in cointegration testing. VECM estimation results are used to obtain information innovations in the short and long term with a certain degree of change.
2.5 Impact of Policy and Macroeconomic Balance
Macroeconomic variables that a major issue is the growth of output, inflation, unemployment, and balance of payments. Macroeconomic variables are interrelated through the goods market, the money market, the labor market, and a stock market that forms the internal balance (equilibrium macro) and external balance. In the event of crop failure in a country where people contribute food expenditure is higher than non-food spending, will give effect to the macro economy. Crop failures are likely to increase food prices. Assuming there are only two sectors of the economy, food and non-food, food prices will increase from P0 and P1 P P. This implies increased expenditure on food and non-food sector will affect the form of lower prices and inflation will increase (Figure 1). Conversely, if there is an increase in food production. Thus, fluctuations in the harvest will cause instability, both for consumers of rice, rice farmers, manufacturers and producers. In the case of positive supply disruption and no government intervention, in order to avoid excess supply penurnan price needs to be collected. Food collection is in need of funds. Before 1999, the use of funds by Bank Indonesia (BI). There are two different policies that may run against the money that is used to hold and / or distribute food supplies. The first possibility, no "sterilization". Purchasing excess supply use BI funds will increase the money supply and the aggregate price level.
According to Law No. 7 of 1996 that regulates food (Government of the Republic of Indonesia, 1996), the food is anything that comes from biological sources and water, whether treated or untreated, which are intended as food or drink for human consumption, including food additives, food raw materials, and other materials used in the preparation, processing, and or manufacture of food or drink. As it relates to food price policy, and not all food commodities involve the government in the form of food price policies not all food commodities will be analyzed. For that use of major food groups that are related to food price policy program.
2.2 Food Price Policy
One purpose of the policy is to stabilize agricultural prices agricultural prices in order to reduce the uncertainty of farming, and ensure stable food prices for consumers and price stability at the macro level. Goes on to say, agricultural price policy can be done through a variety of instruments, namely trade policy, exchange rate policy, taxes and subsidies, as well as direct intervention. Indirectly price stabilization can also be done through marketing policy output and policy input. Policy in the form of subsidized inputs such as inputs prices imposed by the government on fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, and credit. Based on the cause, policy or price stabilization price stabilization can be done by food price policy, ie the policy base price (floor price) and the policy of the highest price (ceiling price). This policy led to an imbalance of the market so that the necessary supporting policies, which do stock or export policy as stipulated base price and the current market operations roof pricing policy set. Of the various forms of the existing policy, the concept kebijakann prices used in this study is the input-output price policy that consists of input price subsidies, credit subsidies input procurement, procurement of food subsidies, and subsidized food procurement credit. Measure used is the number of funds (billions of dollars) are used by the government to implement the policy.
By knowing the causes of inflation, it can be used as the basis for controlling inflation in the form of inflation target to maintain economic stability. Brooks in Debelle shows that State which makes the inflation target, the average level and variability of inflation has declined substantially and output growth is higher with a diversity of inflation and lower output. Economic conditions like this better than the opposite.
In Indonesia's inflation target policy initiated in 1999 and the results of the analysis CSIS (various issues), shows Bank Indonesia's inflation target for the year 2000 to 2002 can not be achieved. The failure was caused by increased demand for money, the political situation is uncertain, and the dry season which resulted in higher food prices. In developed countries, food prices and the political situation, it does not significantly affect inflation target, but monetary factors. In the period 1970-1979 the contribution of food inflation reached 57.47 percent and decreased to 31.17 percent in the period 1990-1998. This indicates the development of agriculture and its supporting policies significantly attenuated the increase in food prices that is no longer a source of inflation as the main cause for the period 1960 to 1970. However, because of the strong relationship to other commodities the price of rice, the rice price stabilization remains a strategic part of the economic stabilization (PSE, 2003). According to Gunawan, the tight regulation of food prices in Indonesia led to reduced macroeconomic instability. The same thing happened in several countries, as well as those resulting from the cited studies showing Kannapiran scheme can reduce the stability of commodity prices, macroeconomic instability, but there is some research that creates a bit of fluctuation, especially in the balance of payments and monetary stability. That is because the policy of price stability does not contribute well to the macro-economic management. Research shows that the inflation rate is influenced by the retail real price of rice, the basic price of rice increased more profitable rice farmers, rice consumers still benefit (increased food security), and maintained macroeconomic stability (increased economic growth, reduced unemployment and inflation has decreased), and political parties and government benefits because of political factors (national defense) has strengthened, while increasing the positive impact of fertilizer subsidy increased use of fertilizer, rice productivity, production and supply of rice, rice farm income and consumption, as well as the positive impact on macroeconomic stability and political stability.
Still large share of food expenditure most people mean weight of food inflation to greater inflation. Moreover, the character of food products to the value of the elasticity of demand is low danpenawaran cause large fluctuations in food prices. Inflation and currency fluctuations may affect the market would then affect macroeconomic stability. Macroeconomic stability is a guarantee for investors to invest so as to create jobs and economic growth. Experience has shown the government to change the regime due to political problems in the market followed by food shortages and rising inflation. Accordingly, the relationship aspect of food prices and inflation is an important issue. monetary factors cause inflation is an increase in the money supply exceeds the increase in money demand, caused by government deficits, credit olehsistem development banks, and the balance of payments surplus due to oil boom and foreign aid, and factors caused by cost push inflation is rising prices The main commodities in the domestic market, such as fuel oil, rice, etc.. The phenomenon of food products on the demanding role of the government to domestic producers and consumers can be protected. The role is expected to accelerate the achievement of national development goals. In order to achieve the national development goals, necessary means, in this context is the stability of food prices which can be done through food price policy. one policy objective is to stabilize food prices food prices in order to reduce the uncertainty of farmers and ensure stable food prices for consumers and price stability at the macro level. The issue is whether government policy intervention in the form of food policy could lead to macroeconomic stability or otherwise is precisely the cause of macroeconomic instability. Because pricing policy requires funding, which in the past sourced from fresh money (fresh money) from Bank Indonesia, thus affecting the money supply or through government spending. For Indonesia as an agriculture-based country with a large population, the phenomenon must be addressed and anticipated. In theoretical concepts, food price policies to control macro-economic stability. Conversely, if the food price policies affect the money supply and government spending, without control can also lead to macroeconomic instability.
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